Jewish political thought expresses itself primarily through law, rather than through the typical Greek search for the best political regime. A result of this common difficulty is identifying and formulating the principles that are clearly, in some way, at work. This article focuses on the legal concept of the kahal, the Jewish name for the political body. The main definition of the kahal is spatial—the community of Jews living in the Land of Israel—rather than structural or organizational. Indeed, the kahal can best be understood as a spontaneous order (in Hayek’s sense) and not as an order of organization. This kahal, though it comes into being in a spontaneous way, also serves as a platform on which the political body can also be arranged in an organized fashion.
Joseph Isaac Lifshitz, "The Place of Developmental Self-Ordering in Judaism: Kahal as Spontaneous Order," Journal of Markets & Morality 13, no. 1 (Spring 2010): 189-203